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Credit card numbers, checksums, and hashes. The story of a robocall scam

Sample Bank of America debit cardAs  Lívia and I were out walking Molly and Patty on Monday evening, I received a telephone call from an unknown number.

I decided to answer the phone anyway, and I was greeted by a recorded voice telling me that my Bank of America debit card beginning with 4217 has been limited and whether I would like to revalidate it.

I don’t have a Bank of America debit card (though I did many years ago), and I know US rules bar most calls that begin with recorded messages, otherwise known as “robocalls.”  I also know that the first few digits of credit card and debit card numbers indicate the card issuer and so are not secret if you know that it is a card issued by a particular bank. It would be easy for a scammer to appear to know my card number. Once I got home, I was able to confirm that 4217 is, indeed, how most Bank of America debit card numbers begin.

Naturally I pressed 1 to “revalidate” my card (not-so-sidenote: you should not try this at home. Indeed, you really should just hang up when you get such calls). I wanted to see how this scam proceeded. At this point I was told a few more details explaining that my card beginning with 4217 needed to be revalidated because of a internal security failure and that I should press 1 to continue. I pressed 1 again.

I was then asked to enter my Bank of America debit card number. Unfortunately, I was not able to construct a number off of the top of my head that would pass their validation check.
While I knew it should begin with 4127 (thanks to the robocall), I did not know at the time that the next two digits should be between 64, 65, or 66 for Bank of America. I did know that the last digit of the sixteen digit number should be calculable from the preceding 15 digits by the Luhn checksum algorithm. But I couldn’t recall the details of the algorithm at the time, and I certainly would not have been able to construct something on the fly quickly enough to enter a “valid” number.

As a consequence, I wasn’t able to get past the “enter your debit card number” step, and so never learned what other information they would ask for, such as my Social Security Number, billing address, or PIN. But it is a safe bet that those would have been requested at some point. Those of course, would have been easier to fabricate as they have no quick validation system.

Checksums

The Luhn checksum is not some super secret security feature, it was a simple system designed to identify errors when exchanging credit card numbers in common use. At best, it can play a minor role in basic security checks to weed out those who just try random numbers.

The system is designed to catch common errors. If one digit of the 15 digits is entered incorrectly the checksum will fail. For example if the correct number is 4217 6601 2345 6784 (here 4 is the checksum) then if the number is given as 4217 6681 2345 6784, where the “0” has been mistyped as an” 8″, the check digit will be 7, and so  4217 6681 2345 6784, with a “4” as the last digit, will not validate.

Some people accidentally type “2435” instead of “2345”, swapping the “3” and the “4”. It happens to the best of us, and it’s another example of the the type of errors the Luhn system can catch.

Not all checksums are cryptographic hashes

1P logo in AESCheck digits of this sort, where the checksum is just one digit long, have properties that make them poorly suited for cryptographic purposes. The most obvious is that they are too small. That is, the check digit can only be one of ten possibilities—0 through 9. Put another way, there is a pretty much a 1 in 10 chance that two numbers will have the same check digit.

When two numbers result in the same checksum, we have a “collision”. If it is feasible to create two numbers that have the same check digit, the system is not collision resistant.

If we also have one number that has a particular checksum then we can easily construct another number that yields the same checksum. So the Luhn algorithm isn’t second-preimage resistant. The difference between collision resistance and second-preimage resistance is subtle. For collision resistance, the problem is “find two numbers whose checksums collide.” For second-preimage resistance, the problem is “here is a number m, now go and find another number that has the same checksum as m.”

It is also the case that if we have a checksum, we can easily construct a number that shares the same checksum. If you give me a checksum of “5”, I can construct a 15 digit number that has 5 as its checksum. That is, it is possible to work backwards from the checksum to an original. Hence, this checksum system is not preimage resistant. Functions that are preimage resistant are sometimes called “one way functions”.

The obvious reason why the Luhn algorithm fails to be preimage resistant, second-preimage resistant, and collision resistant is because it is just one digit. There just isn’t anything you can do when you only have one digit (about 3 bits) with which to work. But there are other reasons as well. I won’t discuss them at all, other than to say that the Luhn algorithm doesn’t have those three properties because it was never designed to.

Resistance is necessary

Cryptographic hash functions, however, are used for more than just checking for accidental errors in data entry or data transmission. This means they do need to be one way functions (preimage resistant); they need to be second-preimage resistant; and they really should be collision resistant.

We’ve discussed how preimage resistance is one of several essential properties of proper treatment of passwords on servers. We’ve also discussed how second-preimage resistance plays a vital role in network security. Over the next few posts I will be talking about how hash functions are used for data integrity checks and specifically for authenticated encryption. Authenticated encryption will play a big role in our next data format.

A fine night for a scam

I am relieved to say that both Patty and Molly did not really mind that I spent the remainder of our walk talking about the nature of the scam; how the criminals’ knowledge of the issuer number on a card can easily fool a target; and, of course, on the difference between checksums and cryptographic hashes. Lívia did not seem quite as complacent as the dogs. “The difference between us, Jeff,” she said, “is that I get really annoyed when something like that happens; but you seem to be really enjoying yourself.”

A few notes about robocalls

Robocalls are a lot like email spam:

  1. The caller ID number is easily counterfeited. You cannot rely on it to trace the source of the call
  2. “Press N to be removed from our list” is a lot like the “unsubscribe” button in email spam. Sure there may the the rare case where it is genuine, but usually it is just used to confirm that the spam/call reaches a real person who, to at least some extent, trusts the message. It’s a great way to get yourself added to more lists

As I write this, the US Federal Trade Commission is hosting a summit on robocalls. There should be more information at that site in coming days and weeks.

Correction October 22, 2012: I incorrectly suggested above that the Luhn algorithm will catch all single transcription errors involving the replacement of one digit with another and all cases where adjacent distinct digits are transposed. I was wrong. The ISBN checksum has these properties, but the Luhn Algorithm used for credit cards does not. The crucial difference revolves around the fact that the ISBN-10 system uses a prime modulus (11), while the Luhn system uses a composite modulus (10). This is also why the check digit for ISBN numbers can sometimes be “X”. The check digit there works out to be a number from 0 through 10, but “X” is used to indicate 10.

I should have spotted this instantly when I looked at the Luhn algorithm, but it required a different path for me to learn of my error. Today is a student holiday in our school district, and so I assigned my daughter the task of proving that the Luhn system will have the properties that I claimed it had. She quickly constructed some counter-examples, where changing an individual digit leads to the same check digit.

“Check out my debit card!” Or: why people make bad security choices

Yes, the stories are true, and no, this isn’t The Onion. People are, once again, displaying their affinity for tweeting photos of things that should never be tweeted.

Let’s set the scene and put you in the shoes of a number of today’s (possibly young, possibly naïve) Twitter users: you get your first debit card, you’re excited, you want to tell your friends. But who calls or even texts in private anymore? So you take a quick picture of your newfound glory and power, then tweet about it to not just your friends, but the world—credit card number, your name, and the card’s expiration date; the works.

Don’t believe me? A new Twitter bot, @NeedADebitCard, has been retweeting these posts, and plenty of them.

Blurred version of debit card posted on TwitterThe card that you see at right was posted publicly to Twitter. Note that I’m the one who actually took the precaution of blurring the number, name, and other details. In the original tweet and the many others like it, all of those are fully visible.

Considering that credit card details (along with verification codes, and billing addresses) can be bought on the black market for about one US dollar a piece if you buy in bulk, posting these really isn’t going to be tragic. Most people’s credit card details have been stolen a dozen times over (mostly through breaches of traditional merchants). But tweeting these certainly reflects some bad habits. For the record, the AgileBits store does not keep a copy of your full credit card numbers when you purchase through us. And when you purchase through iTunes or the Apple Mac Store, then we get no information about you or your purchase at all.

Credit card stored in 1PasswordFortunately, you, my informed 1Password-using reader, can keep your credit and debit card details safely stored in the 1Password Wallet instead of posting them to Twitter or Instagram.

I laughed, but I shouldn’t have

I must confess that I laughed when Stu, my colleague here at AgileBits, pointed these out. If we want to stop people from making poor security decisions (and we certainly do), then we need to understand why people make them in the first place. Of course, some people don’t fully understand the public nature of Twitter, and that certainly plans a role in many cases. But there are other aspects of human nature at play.

There are times, and I think this is one of them, when we can’t blame the users. Instead, the blame falls with the designers of the systems that people must use. But before I talk about credit and debit cards, let me talk about Social Security numbers.

Social Security numbers and identity

For those of you outside of the United States who aren’t familiar with US Social Security numbers, they very roughly correspond to national insurance numbers or national identity numbers. They are officially used as tax payer identification numbers, among other things.

When the system was first set up, Social Security numbers were not at all secret. They were used both by banks and by employers so that income could be reported to the tax authorities. Indeed, like many people, I included my Social Security number on a résumé back in the 1980s as a courtesy to prospective employers. These numbers were used for identification in the same way that a name is, except that there are plenty of people who share my name, while I should be the only one with my Social Security number. Knowing my Social Security numbers was never intended to prove my identity. In other words: knowledge of the number was not supposed to be used for authentication.

Let’s consider this distinction between “identification” and “authentication”. Identification is how you figure out who you are talking about. Authentication is how you test whether someone really is that person. For a typical website, your username (or email address) serves to identify you, while your password is used to authenticate that identity. You may or may not wish to make your username public, but you certainly don’t want to make your password public.

Through a convoluted history that I won’t go into (in short, blame the banks), Social Security numbers switched away from being used merely for identification; the came to be used for authentication as well. They got used in a way that they were never designed for. This led to various problems, a number of new laws, and simply helped to muddle the distinction between identification and authentication.

Credit cards are more confusing

When credit cards and debit cards were originally designed, the numbers were pretty much for  used only for identification, though there were exceptions. People would authenticate themselves by having physical possession of the card and by a producing a signature with a pen on a piece of paper. Certainly there was a lot of scope for fraud which meant some care was needed in not making the identity numbers all too public, but still the card numbers were not designed as authentication.

But then we started using credit cards remotely, first by making payments over the telephone and later for use over computer networks. Neither physical possession of the cards nor a signature on paper could be used for authentication any more. So the card numbers themselves, along with the three digit security (CVV), codes became the means of authentication. As with Social Security numbers, we ended up using a piece of information for authentication that was never designed to be used that way.

Here we go again. This time with checks

Over the past few years I found that when I telephone my bank, and after they have identified me, they request my checking account number. It appears that knowledge of my checking account number is now being used as part of their authentication system. Again, account numbers were never meant for this purpose. Indeed my checking account number is printed on every check I write. These are not secret.

The system that we all use has been giving people mixed messages about what is and isn’t secret. Or it’s been trying to use non-secret information in ways that are only appropriate for secrets. On one hand we are told to keep our credit card numbers secret, while on the other hand we are conditioned to toss over those numbers to any hotel, clerk, or waiter.

Helping people get things right

This misuse of Social Security and credit card numbers evolved through a process of changing scenarios and needs at the time, making due with what was available. It’s not a surprise that the system is far from what we would expect if we designed in intelligently from scratch, so of course our existing, incoherent system is going to cause confusion.

When we do have the opportunity to design something from the ground up, we have the responsibility to ensure that it is easy for people to behave securely. We may not always be able to fully succeed in that attempt, but it must be a guiding design principle for anyone who wants security systems to work for people.

Finally, when we observe people systematically behaving insecurely, we have to ask not “how can people be so stupid” but instead “how is the system leading them to behave insecurely.” Maintaining a clear distinction between non-secret identification information and secret authentication information would be one place to start.

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